A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, which analyzes the amount of PSA in the blood, is used to screen for prostate cancer. The American Urological Association recommends the PSA test for prostate cancer screening. However, PSA tests aren’t always accurate. PSA levels can be increased even when cancer isn’t present, and they can also be undetectable when cancer is present. PSA levels can also be increased as a result of other prostate-related conditions: Prostate enlargement and Urinary tract infection / Prostatitis. Because several factors might impact PSA levels, the best person to assess the findings of your PSA test is your doctor. The Prostate Health Index (PHI) combines total PSA, free PSA, and pro-PSA readings to help assess the likelihood of a man having prostate cancer that requires treatment.
The 4Kscore test combines total PSA, free PSA, intact PSA, and human kallikrein 2 (hK2) findings, as well as a few other indicators, to assist estimate how probable a man is to develop prostate cancer that requires treatment.
Tests that look at the amount of prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) in the urine following a digital rectal exam (such as Progensa) (DRE). Some prostate cells are pushed into the urine by the DRE. Prostate cancer is more likely to be present if the level is high. Tests to see whether there’s a connection between two things. Tests that search for an aberrant gene alteration in prostate cells are TMPRSS2:ERG in urine obtained after a DRE. Although this gene mutation is detected in certain prostate tumors, it is uncommon in the cells of men who do not have prostate cancer. ExoDx Prostate(IntelliScore), also known as EPI, is a test that examines the levels of three biomarkers in a urine sample to estimate a man’s risk of developing aggressive (high-grade) prostate cancer. ConfirmMDx is a test that examines specific genes in cells taken from a prostate biopsy sample.