Pembrolizumab (Keytruda), a checkpoint inhibitor, has been authorized to treat malignancies with particular genetic characteristics, including prostate tumors. Pembrolizumab is also approved for any metastasized tumor with many genetic alterations.

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Many medical centers worldwide are researching the causes, prevention, diagnosis, testing, and treatment of prostate cancer.

Genetics: Scientists are learning more about how prostate cancer develops because of new studies on gene variations connected to the disease. This may make it feasible to develop treatments that specifically target such alterations. For example, tests for aberrant prostate cancer genes might potentially assist in identifying high-risk men who could benefit from screening or chemoprevention clinical trials, which utilize medications to attempt to prevent cancer. In addition, tests for particular gene alterations in men who have already been diagnosed with prostate cancer can give men and their doctors a clearer sense of how likely the disease is to develop and spread, impacting treatment options.


Prolaris is a genetic test that can indicate how rapidly prostate cancer progresses in untreated men. Prolaris aids in providing clarity regarding your cancer’s behavior, allowing you to make confident treatment decisions. Prolaris testing is appropriate for patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer. Because all patients with prostate cancer have previously had a prostate biopsy, there is no need for more biopsies. Learn how genetic testing can help you choose the right prostate cancer therapy.


A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, which analyzes the amount of PSA in the blood, is used to screen for prostate cancer. The American Urological Association recommends the PSA test for prostate cancer screening. However, PSA tests aren’t always accurate. PSA levels can be increased even when cancer isn’t present, and they can also be undetectable when cancer is present. PSA levels can also be increased due to prostate-related conditions: Prostate enlargement and Urinary tract infection / Prostatitis. Because several factors might impact PSA levels, your doctor is the best person to assess the findings of your PSA test. The Prostate Health Index (PHI) combines total PSA, free PSA, and pro-PSA readings to help evaluate the likelihood of a man having prostate cancer that requires treatment.

The 4Kscore test combines total PSA, free PSA, intact PSA, and human kallikrein 2 (hK2) findings, as well as a few other indicators, to assist in estimating how probable a man is to develop prostate cancer that requires treatment.

Tests that look at the amount of prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) in the urine following a digital rectal exam (such as Progensa) (DRE). Some prostate cells are pushed into the urine by the DRE. Prostate cancer is more likely to be present if the level is high. Tests to see whether there’s a connection between two things. Tests that search for an aberrant gene alteration in prostate cells are TMPRSS2:ERG in urine obtained after a DRE. Although this gene mutation is detected in certain prostate tumors, it is uncommon in the cells of men who do not have prostate cancer. ExoDx Prostate(IntelliScore), also known as EPI, is a test that examines the levels of three biomarkers in a urine sample to estimate a man’s risk of developing aggressive (high-grade) prostate cancer. ConfirmMDx is a test that examines specific genes in cells taken from a prostate biopsy sample.

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